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Fundamentals Lesson 8: Mock Reading Tutoring Session

Beginning of Class Routine

Setting the Stage: Play culturally relevant instrumental music as the students enter class.

Lead the students in a midline crossing activity. Use Educational Kinesiology document to find useful resources.

45-50 minute lesson

OBJECTIVES

Students will:

  • demonstrate knowledge of reading tutoring strategies and effective book selection by practicing with another student
  • develop understanding of how social interdependence affects trust (Self-Awareness)
  • understand impacts of personal and collective agency (Self-Management)
  • deepen understanding about power of empathy and showing respect for others (Social Awareness)
  • co-create a sense of belonging and thriving (Responsible Decision-Making)  

PREPARATION

  • Printed High Frequency Sight Word list and graph
  • Fluency reading passages and fluency graph
  • Elementary school-level books for students to practice tutoring. You will need at least 1 book per pair of students.
  • Print copies or provide the link to  Tutoring Timesheet and Daily Log. If printing copies, make sure there is 1 per student.
21st Century Competencies Skills for Learning & Life
Critical thinking, communication, collaboration, creativity, social skills, leadership, productivity, initiative, flexibility Social Awareness, Self-Awareness, Responsible Decision-Making, Self-Management

INTRODUCTION

Building The LIA Classroom Community (10-15 minutes)
Go over the objectives of this lesson.

Community Building Activity:

Purpose: To use the Academic Vocabulary Buddies (AVB) tool to facilitate student interaction so that students will have specific partners for various activities throughout the period or week. This is a quick and easy way to create pairs for future partnered activities that offers a break from continually turning to an elbow partner.

Skills for Learning & Life Focus: Interacting with Academic Vocabulary Buddies (AVB) will further enhance students’ Relationship Skills, Social Awareness and Responsible Decision-Making skills.

Overview (3 min):

  • Welcome students – lead a Community Circle/ Class Meetings activity (collaborative process) – see Skills for Learning & Life 3 Signature Practices Playbook and Introduction to Welcoming Rituals (Bright Ideas) 
  • Access the Academic Vocabulary Buddy handout and add 3-4 vocabulary words in the left hand column that relate to any of the reading vocabulary words from F.08 vocabulary.
  • Distribute the AVB handout with the 3-4 words already filled into the handout to each participant and ask them to write their own name at the top of their paper.
  • Instruct participants to stand up with their AVB papers and a pencil and move quietly around the room until you use your attention signal (could be music, chime or bell), at which point they should stop and find a partner. Make sure that they select someone who they are not familiar with or from a different country of origin.
  • When everyone has a partner, ask them to make sure that they can pronounce each other’s first and last name properly. Sign each other’s paper on the vocabulary word in the space to the right. It is very important that they start with the same word. 
  • Give the signals to mix, stop, and find a new partner, making sure that they select someone who they are not familiar with or from a different country of origin and that they pronounce eachother’s first and last name properly. Check to be sure everyone has a new partner before you ask participants to sign each other’s papers on the second vocabulary line. Have partners mingle and pair up two more times until they have completed the activity.
  • After all lines are signed, invite participants to return to their seats.
  • Each time you need participants to form pairs during the lesson, have them take out their AVB and announce one of the vocabulary words to designate their partner for this activity. For example, if the first word is “Courage” then you would say “Now get together with your “Courage” AVB to reflect and discuss…” Do this as a practice exercise. 
  • You will use the AVB in the sections below in addition to any other LIA Lessons.

Reflection

  • What? What were your thoughts and feelings as you signed up your Academic Vocabulary Buddies? (Self-Awareness)
  • So What? Why do you think it’s important to get to know other students who you do not know well or from a different country of origin? (Social Awareness) 
  • Now What? What will you do with what you learned about working with others who you do not know very well? (Responsible Decision Making)

*Virtual Adaptation: Show students how to use their computer to access the Academic Vocabulary Buddies and facilitate a virtual AVB list. Manually place AVBs in Breakout Rooms to get to know each other and even practice reading their essays. Emphasize Norms of Virtual Collaboration and Shared Agreements.

Activities to foster student engagement. (click link for resource)

INSTRUCTION

Purpose: To practice tutoring techniques learned to effectively deliver reading tutoring to students that demonstrate a need. To practice interacting with peers to facilitate student interaction so that tutors have more patience, empathy and compassion with their tutees. (Literacy Strategies for English Learners, Calderon 2016).

Skills for Learning & Life Focus: This tutoring simulation activity will further enhance students’ Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness and Responsible Decision-Making skills.

Teach the Tutoring Timesheet and Daily Log and explain to students that this will need to be done at least once a week to keep track of each tutee’s progress.

Overview:

  • Explain to students that they will participate in a Reading Tutoring simulation between a tutor and tutee. Use a grouping activity such as Academic Vocabulary Buddies or Clock Buddies to create pairs for this reading activity. In the case where there are ELs or struggling readers, intentionally pair these students with more proficient English speakers. 
  • Remind the students to have patience, empathy, and compassion when reading with their tutees.

Virtual Adaptation: Use Breakout rooms to work with your tutee. Emphasize patience, empathy, and compassion.

Relevancy/Linkage

  • Show the students  Picture Walk Video (2:27 minutes). This will demonstrate an effective picture walk for students. 
  • Explain the purpose of this lesson is for students to get a chance to practice the tutoring process that they will use with their tutees at the elementary school.

High Frequency Sight Word Routine (Sight Word Resource Folder)

Teacher will review the steps of high frequency sight word routine/progress monitoring with the students. Ask for a volunteer to refer to their Day 1 guided notes and recite the steps from Slide 11 and 13 of the Latinos in Action Tutor Training:

What does it look like?

  1. Select a sight word list and focus on ten words at a time.
  2. Tutor identifies the word first, then spells the word aloud.
  3. Tutee repeats the word, spells the word or air draws the word.
  4. As the tutee nears mastery, the tutor should consider allowing the tutee to identify the word and spell the word without guidance.
  5. Track tutees progress using a sight word tracking graph.

High Frequency Sight Word Progress Monitoring

What does it look like?

  1. Tutee will do a “cold read” (no practice) of ten sight words.
  2. Tutor will help tutee record the number of correct words on the graph.
  3. Tutor and tutee will practice the sight words.
  4. Tutee will do a “hot read” (read the words again) and track the second read on the graph.
  5. Tutors can track mastery using an assessment tracker.

Fluency Practice Routine: Reading Accuracy/Fluency: Review the routine for reading fluency practice.

Materials:

  • Reading passage: 2 copies
  • Sheet protector
  • Marker/Eraser
  • Timer
  • Fluency Graph
  • Pencil
  1. Read the title of the passage to the student and have them read it silently. Pronounce tricky words when asked.
  2. Students put their finger under the first word. Get ready to do your best reading. Say, ready… begin as you start a 1-minute timer.
  3. Listen to the student read aloud and underline any words read incorrectly. Give students the word if they’re stuck for more than 3 sec. (error).
  4. Put a ] after the last word read when the timer goes off.
  5. Provide feedback: You read _ words. I heard _ errors. Point to each underlined word and pronounce it correctly. Have the student reread the sentence with the error to fix it.
  6. Graph the data: date, passage number, wcpm.
  7. Repeat steps 1-6 for a second reading of the same text.
  8. Paragraph Shrinking Summary

Paragraph Shrinking Summary

  1. Name the who or what.
  2. Tell the most important thing about the who or what.
  3. Say the main idea in 10 words or less.

Book Selection

  • Level: the book needs to be age-level and proficiency-level appropriate. If your mentee/tutee is struggling immensely, then the book may not be level appropriate. Consider showing the LIA students  The 5 Finger Rule.
  • Topic: Try to find books that meet the mentee’s interests. We focus more and are more interested if the book is about something we find interesting. If your mentee likes dinosaurs, try to find a book about dinosaurs.
  • Cover: Is the cover interesting? Are there pictures? Is there an appropriate title?
  • Illustrations: Are there many illustrations? Are they interesting and fun? Do they help tell a story?
  • Structure/organization: A straightforward plot is best for young students. For example, you would not read Harry Potter novels with a first grader because the books are not always chronological, they skip between different time periods and places, and don’t have many illustrations.

 Before Reading

  • Set a purpose
  • Go over the cover, author, and illustrator.
  • Take the student through a picture walk – either demonstrate a picture walk or show Video Picture Walk. A picture walk is when you have students talk about what they think will happen in the book and activate their prior knowledge by walking through each picture and not reading any of the words.
  • Introduce vocabulary that you predict the student does not know and explain it.
  • Have students make predictions and brainstorm what will happen in the story.

 During Reading

  • Comprehension checks- ask good questions (video is linked) about characters’ names and attributes, location/setting, and major plotline questions.
  • Think aloud- “I wonder if…” “I think that…”
  • Predict and verify- “I predict that Clifford will befriend the grouchy neighbors…” then check at the end of the book to see if the predictions were correct.
  • Relate text to self/text/world- Bring the book back to their lives and their interests, so they feel invested in the story.
  • Visualization- Have tutees create a mental image in their minds to represent the ideas that they read in the text: “Close your eyes and imagine Clifford, his friends, their house, etc…”
  • Praise- Be genuine with compliments. Tell the tutees that they are trying very hard, or focusing really well, or that you have seen great improvement (if you have). They need to feel encouraged!

After Reading

  • Retell or summarize the text
  • Make predictions of what might happen next in the text
  • Make connections- self-text-world
  • Ask good questions
  • If they are young students (K-2), focus on easier questions, like:
    • What was your favorite part of the story?
    • Which character did you like?
    • What characters do you remember?
    • Where did the story take place?
  • If they are more advanced or older students (grades 3-5), you can dive into more difficult questions:
    • How would you compare (a character) to (another character)?
    • If you were in the situation, how would you have acted?
    • If you could change the ending, how would it end?
    • Were any of the characters like people you know? (Again, relating back to self/real world!)
    • What did you learn about the world?
  • Clarify and explain for understanding
  • Provide positive and corrective feedback

Reading Formats: Review the different reading formats.

Interactive Read Aloud: To view a short video about interactive read aloud click here.

What is it?

The tutor reads aloud a selected text occasionally pausing for conversation. Encourage tutee to think about, talk about, and respond to the text.  

What does it look like?

  • Introduce the text- Engage tutee’s interest and activate prior knowledge.
  • Read the text- Stop a few times to invite thinking and brief conversation.
  • Discuss the text- Invite tutee to talk about the book.
  • Revisit the text (optional)- Revisit the book to reread it or parts of it so tutee can notice more about the text and build deeper meaning.
  • Respond to the text (optional)- Engage tutee in additional experiences to increase appreciation and understanding of the text; Ex: writing, art, drama, inquiry based project.

Shared Reading: To view a short video about shared reading click here.

What is it?

The tutor and tutee read aloud an engaging text that is beyond tutees independent reading level.

What does it look like?

  • Introduce the text- Engage tutee’s interest in the text.
  • Model reading of the text- Read the text to the tutee at a good pace focus on enjoyment and understanding.
  • Read the text together- Have tutee read the text with you.
  • Discuss the text- Guide discussion about meaning of text; invite tutee to share their thinking.
  • Teaching points- Select parts of the text to make teaching points.
  • Repeated Readings- Revisit the text again on a different day, paying attention to teaching points and supporting tutee’s growing independence reading the text.

Paired/Partner Reading: To view a short video about modeled echo reading click here.

What is it?

The tutor and tutee read aloud a text to each other by taking turns reading. The tutor should provide corrective feedback for errors.

What does it look like?

  • A more fluent reader should be paired with a less fluent reader.
  • The tutor and the tutee sit side-by-side so that both can see the text at the same time., or near each other if both have copies of the text.
  • The tutor and tutee decide if they will take turns by sentence, paragraph, or page.
  • If the tutee gets stuck on a word the tutor should: point to the word, tell them the word, have them repeat the word.

Modeled Echo Reading: To view a short video about modeled echo reading click here.

What is it?

The tutor reads part of the text aloud paying close attention to reading with fluency and expression. The tutee echos the reading back to the tutor.

What does it look like?

  • Tutor reads a sentence or two aloud, modeling expressive fluent reading.
  • Tutee will follow along by tracking with their eyes or pointing with their finger. 
  • Tutee echos the text back to the tutor.
  • Continue the process until the book or passage is completed.
  • In between each step the tutor should provide positive feedback and praise.

Providing Feedback

What is it?

Feedback is providing an explanation of what the tutee is doing correctly and incorrectly. Effective feedback helps the tutee reflect on their reading so they can make adjustments and make better progress in their reading.

What does it look like?

Use a feedback sandwich model

  1. State a positive piece of feedback: “I liked specific feedback.
  2. State a corrective feedback: “I noticed specific feedback.”
  3. Offer a suggestion: “You could try specific idea.”
  4. Offer specific praise “You did a great job specific praise.”

Respectful Redirection Prompts

If your tutee is not paying attention:

  • I need you to focus.
  • What should you be doing right now?
  • I really like how (insert another student name) is paying attention. I know you could do the same.

If your tutee is disruptive and non-responsive:

  • Let’s take a minute to figure out how to make today better.
  • Maybe I should return you to class and we can try again next week.
  • I really want to give you a sticker today, but if you choose not to improve your behavior I won’t be able to give you one.

Guided Practice

Direct students to practice the following:

  1. High Frequency Sight Word Practice Routine/Progress Monitoring (5-7 minutes)
  2. Fluency Reading Routine (10 minutes)
  3. Book Selection
  4. Choose and Implement a Reading Format: 
  • Interactive Read Aloud
  • Shared Reading
  • Paired/Partner Reading
  • Modeled/Echo Reading
  1. Active Reading Strategies: (15 minutes)
  • Before Reading
  • During Reading
  • After Reading
  1. Asking Good Questions
  2. Providing Feedback
  3. Respectful Redirection

REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT

Review

Emphasize the following: 

  • It’s important for LIA students to celebrate reading and make it enjoyable for their mentees.
  • The number one goal as mentors/reading tutors is building positive relationships with our mentees/tutees.

Assessment

In- Person Class Assessment Options: 

  • Turn and Talk Discussion:  Students will respond to this question: Which part of the tutoring simulation was most difficult for you? Why? Which part of the tutoring simulation was easier for you? Why?

Journal Entry Questions: Teacher or students may choose 1-2 questions below. These questions will be the same for Fundamentals L5, L6, L7, L8.

  • What is your fondest memory about reading?
  • What genre of books do you enjoy reading? (use this Genre Slideshow to explain genres. This is a good opportunity to expand vocabulary).
  • What is your favorite book and why do you like that book?
  • What is the most challenging part of reading? What don’t you like about it?
  • What are some potential outcomes of a child who is read to versus a child who is not read to?
  • Agree/Disagree with this statement and explain your answer: Children don’t like to read because they are not good at it?

Online Class Assessment Options:

  • Exit Ticket. Create a discussion assignment in your Learning Management System (LMS). Students respond to this question: Which part of the tutoring simulation was most difficult for you? Why? Which part of the tutoring simulation was easier for you? Why?

ADAPTATIONS

Adaptation/Extension Activity

  • Encourage students to practice the tutoring simulation on a family member and record the experience. Students can review the video and self critique.

Adaptation for Virtual Tutoring

  • There are still plenty of unknowns about the impact of school closures during the pandemic and the effect it would have on schools in the long term. Many schools have implemented in-person, virtual, and hybrid instructional models that involve daily synchronous instruction. For this reason, it is important to establish and maintain a virtual tutoring model that can present content in multiple ways to help students retain information and address the need to reinforce vocabulary development, reading comprehension, and background knowledge. The benefits of using digital media resources in virtual tutoring provide students a multisensory experience while introducing new concepts and ideas remotely. 
  • To begin a virtual tutoring model, the LIA class and the elementary school must utilize a common virtual learning platform with a built-in video conferencing tool to deliver instruction. Some examples of virtual platforms include Zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, BigBlueButton on Canvas, Google Classroom, Schoology, etc. Once you decide on a platform, you and the elementary school teacher will need to familiarize yourselves with the ins and outs of this platform. If you need additional assistance, contact your school or district IT staff for support. 
  • It is also important for students to have one-to-one devices. Once the virtual platform is established, all tutors and tutees will either join one shared virtual classroom, or individual virtual spaces, with a code or link. 
  • The LIA and elementary school teachers manage and maintain shared folders and provide materials for the tutors and tutees to use during the online tutoring sessions.
  • The LIA students and the elementary students will use a video-chatting tool through the chosen tutoring platform to provide live instruction during the tutoring session. Virtual tutoring sessions must be monitored and maintained, by at least one of the teachers.
  • If your chosen platform includes a breakout room option, it is imperative that you take time to familiarize yourself with how to utilize this tool. The following resources will provide you with a brief introduction of how breakout rooms work on the following platforms:
  • The teachers create online breakout rooms by dividing the students into pairings or groupings. All breakout rooms are listed on a hyperlinked document in the virtual classroom for students to find. Use 13.01 LIA Virtual Tutoring Breakout Room Sample Sheet as a reference point. The functionality and practicality of online breakout rooms work similarly to physical groups in offline settings. In addition, breakout rooms offer online classroom tools, such as a virtual whiteboard to jot down notes and the ability for students to interact and speak to each other. Teachers can walk around to observe in-person tutoring sessions or virtually monitor remote students. It is recommended that an additional breakout room is created to serve as a virtual “help desk.” The teacher should monitor this breakout room for any concerns or questions that students may have while tutoring remotely. 

BRIGHT IDEAS

Vocabulary (the same as F.05) Materials

Elements of Reading

  • Vocabulary
  • Language structure
  • Phonics
  • Cadence
  • Fluency
  • Prior knowledge
  • Scaffolding

Tutor Training Slide Deck

F.08 Vocabulary Slide Deck (print out for vocabulary word wall)

Day 1- 3 Tutor Training Guided Notes

Academic Vocabulary Buddy handout

Tutoring Timesheet and Daily Log

Sight Word Resource Folder

Sight Word Graph

Fluency Reading Graph

Picture Walk Video

 The 5 Finger Rule

Asking Good Questions video

What is Interactive Reading video

What is Shared Reading video

Paired Reading video

Modeled Echo reading video

Reading passage: 2 copies

Sheet protector

Marker/Eraser

Timer

Fluency Graph